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Federal workplace immigration officials recently announced that “relaxed” I-9 rules have been extended until April 30, 2022, ensuring that employers can inspect I-9 documents for certain employees working remotely due to COVID-19 restrictions by way of camera or fax. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) noted that this extension will ensure that the guidance for employees hired on or after April 1, 2021, and working exclusively in a remote setting due to COVID-19-related precautions will remain in place for the next several months. What do employers need to know about this December 15 announcement?
Employees who qualify for these relaxed rules are temporarily exempt from the physical inspection requirements associated with the Employment Eligibility Verification (Form I-9) until they undertake non-remote employment on a regular, consistent, or predictable basis, or the extension of the flexibilities related to such requirements is terminated, whichever is earlier. When an affected employee commences “non-remote employment on a regular, consistent, or predictable basis” the employer must verify the employee’s documentation in person within three business days.
What if the Remote Employee Leaves Employment Before We Have a Chance to Inspect Their I-9 Documents in Person?
In its announcement, ICE also provided the following guidance: “Employers may be unable to timely inspect and verify, in-person, the Form I-9 supporting documents of employee(s) hired since March 20, 2020, . . .in case-by-case situations (such as cases in which affected employees are no longer employed by the employer). In such cases, employers may memorialize the reason(s) for this inability in a memorandum retained with each affected employee’s Form I-9. Any such reason(s) will be evaluated, on a case-by-case basis, by DHS ICE in the event of a Form I-9 audit.”
When a government agency announces a “case by case” policy, this is of little comfort to employers. We suggest that employers err on the side of caution and have remote new hires’ Form I-9 documentation physically inspected by an authorized representative retained by the employer for that purpose, unless COVID-19 restrictions render that option unadvisable.
You should carefully coach authorized representatives on how to correctly fill out page 2 of the I-9, as any errors or omissions will be attributed to the employer. In the alternative, you should monitor remote employees’ visits to the workplace and conduct the in-person follow-up document review as early as possible.
Given that fines for I-9 errors can run in the thousands of dollars per I-9, the cost of a self-audit is relatively inexpensive, and helps ensure compliance moving forward.
Beginning on January 1, 2021, Florida’s new “Verification of Employment Eligibility” statute will require many employers to use the federal E-Verify system before hiring any new employees. This new law could force significant changes to your hiring practices. What do Florida employers need to know about this significant development?
Legislative Background And Campaign Promises
E-Verify was introduced by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in partnership with the Social Security Administration as a voluntary program. However, many employers in Florida will soon be faced with mandatory implementation of the web-based system to confirm employment eligibility for new hires.
Under preexisting federal law, all employers are required to complete an I-9 Employment Eligibility Verification form for each new employee to verify the identity and eligibility of that employee to work in the United States. Since its inception in 1996, most states have also encouraged voluntary participation in the federal government’s E-Verify program, which compares information supplied by an employer from its Form I-9 to information available to the federal government from various databases. Only nine states require E-Verify for all employers.
Since 2011, E-Verify has been required on all state projects in Florida. However, following a nationwide trend of growing support for the federal employment verification system, Governor Ron DeSantis signed Florida Senate Bill 664 on June 30, requiring all public employers – as well certain private employers – to use E-Verify beginning January 1, 2021.
As a gubernatorial candidate in 2018, DeSantis vowed to mandate the use of E-Verify among all employers in the state. This was controversial and opposed not only by some immigrant advocacy groups, but also by business groups — especially those in agriculture, construction, and hospitality. Following Governor DeSantis’ signing of the bill, a spokesperson explained, “Given the high unemployment rate due to COVID-19, it is more important than ever to ensure that the state’s legal residents benefit from jobs that become available as Florida continue to reopen in a safe and smart manner.” While the measure expands the use of E-Verify, Florida does not join the states that require use of the system in hiring practices for all employers.
What Does the New Law Require?
There are varying obligations for employers depending on whether they are public or private, and whether they contract with the state or receive certain state incentives.
Public Employers And Private Employers Who Contract With The State Or Receive State Incentives
Once in effect, every Florida public employer, along with their private contractors and subcontractors, must enroll in and use the E-Verify system to confirm the eligibility of all employees hired after January 1, 2021. No public contract can be entered into without an E-Verify certificate.
Any contractor who hires a sub must require an affidavit stating that they don’t employ, contract with, or subcontract with any unauthorized immigrants. Importantly, this affidavit provides for all newly hired employees, not just those working on government contracts. This affidavit must be kept by the general contractor for the duration of the contract and all contractors will need to go through this process for each public project.
If a public employer has a good faith belief that these requirements have been knowingly violated, it can terminate the contract, without liability for breach of contract, or demand that its contractor terminate any noncompliant subcontractors. Terminations for purported violations of these requirements may be challenged in court within 20 days of the date of termination. However, if the contractor is in fact found guilty, the contractor will be barred from public contracting for at least a year after termination and may be held liable for any additional costs associated with the termination.
In addition to private employers who contract with public entities, these new E-Verify employment eligibility requirements will also apply to employers who receive taxpayer-funded incentives through the state Department of Economic Opportunity. Beginning on January 1, 2021, the DEO will not approve an economic development incentive application unless the application includes proof that the applicant business is registered with and uses the E-Verify system in the eligibility verification process for all newly hired employees. Should the DEO make a final determination that an awardee has failed to be compliant, the employer will be forced to repay all moneys received by the DEO as an economic incentive.
E-Verify For All Other Private Employers
For private employers who do not contract with the state or receive state incentives, Florida law will now require these private employers to use E-Verify, or alternatively use the Form I-9 and maintain copies of the documents used to complete the Form for three years (which is optional under federal law). If the E-Verify certificate or Form I-9 documentation is requested by certain parties (such as the State Attorney, Attorney General, Department of Law Enforcement, etc.), the employer must provide them with proof of the employee’s eligibility.
Private employers accused of non-compliance will be provided notice from the DEO and the employer must terminate any unauthorized employees, begin complying with the legal procedures, and respond with an affidavit of compliance within 30 days. Failure to do so risks potential suspension of existing licenses until the employer provides such an affidavit. If an employer fails to properly respond to a DEO notice three times in any 36-month period, it could permanently lose its business licenses and may be liable for additional civil or criminal liabilities.
The E-Verify requirements will also go into effect for the private sector on January 1, 2021. This new law will not apply to any employees that were hired before then. However, any existing employment contracts that need to be renewed or extended after that date will be required to go through the verification process without going through the E-Verify process.
Ensuring Compliance Readiness Is The Next Step for Employers
Public employers in Florida and those who bid on contracts with the state should be ready to comply with the new law by updating their onboarding and new hire practices. Private employers who choose not to use E-Verify should continue to complete and maintain Form I-9 verification records, including copies of the documents that were reviewed. The enforcement procedures under the new E-Verify mandate are significant, and failure to comply can seriously impact your ability to do business within the state.
Notably, government scrutiny of employment verification records at both the state and federal level has the potential to increase when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides. You can prepare for government reviews by periodically auditing your employment verification records to ensure you have been completed fully and properly.
Although the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently relaxed I-9 requirements for employers operating remotely as a result of the COVID-19 crisis, employers are still left with some questions on how to meet their obligations in this uncertain time.
Under federal guidance, employers are temporarily no longer be required to review an employee’s identity and work authorization documents in the employee’s physical presence. Instead, inspection of these documents can be conducted remotely (e.g., by video, fax, or email).
According to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), “if employers are performing inspections remotely (e.g., over video link, fax or email, etc.) they must obtain, inspect, and retain copies of the Section 2 documents within three business day of hire. In addition to completing Section 2, Employers also should enter ‘COVID-19’ in the Additional Information field.”
Then, when “normal operations resume,” all employees whose documents were presented via remote verification must, within three business days, undergo the required “in-person” examination of documents. The person conducting the physical examination should write the words “documents physically examined” in the Additional Information box in Section 2, and should include their name and the date of inspection.
It is important to keep in mind that the DHS’s relaxed requirements apply only to employers who are operating remotely. According to the guidance, if there are employees physically present at a work location, then you must follow the normal in-person physical inspection rules. However, if newly hired employees or existing employees of an employer who still has employees present at a work location are subject to COVID-19 quarantine or lockdown protocols, “DHS will evaluate this on a case-by-case basis.”
While employers appreciate the DHS’s temporary relaxation of the in-person document inspection rules, some questions are not addressed by either DHS or USCIS. Here are the most common questions we have seen and the best practices to follow.
The Social Security Administration (SSA) recently resurrected its practice of issuing Employer Correction Request notices – also known as “no-match letters” – when it receives employee information from an employer that does not match its records. If you find yourself in receipt of such a letter, it is recommended that you take the following seven steps as well as considering consulting your legal counsel.
Step 1: Understand The Letter
The first and perhaps most obvious step is to read the letter carefully and understand what it says. Too often employers rush into action before taking the time to read and understand the no-match letter.
In the past week, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has significantly increased the number of Notices of Inspection issued to employers nationwide, leading to a dramatic spike in I-9 audits. Unlike the enforcement initiative rolled out by federal authorities in February of this year, the latest sweep is no longer concentrated in Southern California but appears to be nationwide in scope.
There appears to be somewhat of a pattern with regard to which employers are targeted by this effort. ICE seems to be focusing on businesses operating in states, counties, and cities that have designated “sanctuary” status, and has also ramped up efforts to follow up with employers who have been subject to an I-9 audit in the past.
Regardless of whether you fall into either of these two categories, you are at increased risk of a visit from federal immigration authorities. What should you do today to prepare for a possible knock on the door from federal officials tomorrow?
The federal government’s electronic employment verification system will be unavailable this weekend due to system upgrades.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) announced that E-Verify will be shut down from midnight March 23 to 8 a.m. March 26 Eastern Time. E-Verify users are encouraged to complete and close any open cases prior to the system shutdown.
The Department of Homeland Security and the Social Security Administration will not be able to assist employees with case resolution issues during the outage. myE-Verify, the system’s resource portal for workers, will also be unavailable.
“During the suspension, employers will not be able to access their E-Verify accounts and employees will be unable to resolve E-Verify tentative nonconfirmations,” said Michael H. Neifach, an attorney in the Wahington, D.C., regional office of Jackson Lewis. “The E-Verify outage does not change any Form I-9 requirements,” he added. “Form I-9s must be completed no later than three business days after employment.”
To minimize the shutdown’s impact, the agency stipulated:
USCIS is prepping for a move to an upgraded user interface later this month. Enhanced features are expected to include a streamlined process for creating and managing cases, modernized data-matching to reduce tentative nonconfirmations, and improved data integrity.
The current version of the Form I-9, the most fundamental tool used to determine if applicants are eligible to work in the U.S., expired on March 31. Until further notice, though, employers should keep using the expired form until the recently proposed “smart” I-9 is in effect, according to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
Dave Basham, a senior analyst in the verification division at USCIS, has been answering the following question a lot recently: “What will happen on March 31, 2016, when the Form I-9 expires?” Basham says: “Employers should continue to use the current version of the form as it continues to be effective even after the OMB [Office of Management and Budget] control number expiration date March 31, 2016, has passed.”
On March 28, 2016, USCIS published a second round of proposed changes to the form in the Federal Register, giving the public 30 days to comment. Once the comment period ends April 27 and comments are considered, USCIS may make further changes before sending the proposal to OMB, which will need to review and approve it. The form will be available for download at www.uscis.gov upon being approved.
“Employers must continue to use the current version of Form I-9 until the proposed version is approved and posted on the USCIS website,” said Amy Peck, an immigration attorney in the Omaha, Neb., office of Jackson Lewis.
The proposed, revised form is designed to address frequent points of confusion that arise for both employees and employers.
The proposed changes specifically aim to help employers reduce technical errors for which they may be fined, and include:
The proposed changes will have far-reaching impact because all employers are required to complete and maintain the Form I-9 for each employee hired to verify their identity and authorization to work in the United States.
The Immigration Customs and Enforcement division (ICE) of the Department of Homeland Security, continues to issue Form I-9 Notices of Inspection to businesses of all sizes across the nation. In fiscal year 2012, ICE served over 3,000 Notices to businesses, resulting in over $12 million in fines. Additionally, ICE made 520 criminal arrests tied to worksite enforcement investigations. These criminal arrests involved 240 individuals who were owners, managers, supervisors, or human resources employees.
The Notices of Inspection allow ICE to inspect employers I-9 forms to determine compliance with employment eligibility-verification laws. Once the Notice of Inspection has been issued, the targeted employer has three days to provide ICE with the company’s I-9 forms to be reviewed. In addition to I-9 forms for current and recently terminated employees, employers will be asked to turn over payroll records, list of current employees, and information about the company’s ownership.
Civil penalties for errors on the I-9 form can range from $110 to $1,100 per violation. Civil penalties for knowingly hiring and continuing to employ unauthorized workers range from $375 to $3,200 per violation for first time violations. In determining penalty amounts, ICE considers five factors:
1) The size of the business;
2) Good-faith efforts to comply;
3) The seriousness of the violation;
4) Whether the violation involved unauthorized workers
5) Any history of previous violations.
Here are 12 tips to help protect your company and limit exposure for I-9 violations:
1. Make sure you are using the correct I-9 form. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services recently released a new version of the I-9 form. Beginning May 7, 2013 only the 03/08/13 version of the I-9 form will be accepted.
2. Have employees complete the form in a timely manner. For a new hire, the employee must complete Section 1 before starting work on the first day. You must complete Section 2 and the Certification by the end of the third business day.
3. Ensure that the Preparer/Translator Section is completed if the employee received assistance completing Section 1 of the I-9 form.
4. Don’t accept any expired documents.
5. Avoid discrimination or document abuse. When completing the I-9 process, do not require the employee to provide specific documents or more documents than minimally required.
6. Don’t play detective. If a document presented by the employee is on the List of Acceptable Documents, reasonably appears to be genuine, and relates to the person presenting it, you may accept that document to complete Section 2 of the I-9 form.
7. Re-verify expiring work-authorization documents before they expire and do not allow any employee to continue to work after a work-authorization document expires.
8.Don’t re-verify U.S. passports or passport cards, Permanent Resident Cards, or List B Identity documents.
9. Keep I-9 forms in a separate binder for current employees and another for terminated employees. Do not keep I-9 forms in employee personnel files.
10. Train the individuals in your company who complete the I-9 process.
11. Conduct self-audits. Correctable errors on the I-9 form should be fixed, the change should be initialed and dated, and the words “Per Self Audit” should be placed beside the correction.
12. Know your rights. If ICE appears to review your I-9 forms and conduct an audit, insist on a written Notice of Inspection and your right to have three business days before you turn over your original I-9 forms.
It’s clear from recent events that ICE will continue auditing employers’ I-9 forms to ensure that all employers are complying with immigration laws. Creating a culture of compliance and auditing your company’s forms is the best way to prepare your company for an ICE I-9 audit.
Please contact our office regarding any questions that you may have on performing an I-9s or how to perform an I-9 audit.
After months of negotiations, landmark legislation was unveiled that proposed substantial changes to the U.S. immigration laws.
The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 (filed April 16, 2013) lays out a 13-year path to citizenship for most of the 11 million people living in the U.S. illegally, allocates billions of dollars to be spent on border security, creates new legal guest worker programs for low-income jobs and farm labor, mandates the use of E-Verify for most companies hiring new workers and expands overall immigration to the U.S. by 50% in the next 10 years.
The bill proposes ways to clear up green card backlogs, raises the cap for H-1B workers and creates a new “W-visa” program for lower skilled workers.
Aspects of the bill that would impact the workplace include the following:
All employers would be required to use the E-Verify electronic employment verification system, phased in over a 5 year period. Large employers with more than 5000 employees would be phased in within two years.
Every non-citizen would be required to carry a “biometric work authorization card”.
Enhancements to the E-Verify system would include a photo-matching tool and the capability for employees to “lock” their Social Security numbers in the system to prevent others from using them. In order for the non-citizen to be cleared for a job, the picture on the card presented by the employee to the employer will have to match the identical picture the employer has in the E-Verify system. Employers would be required to certify that the photograph presented in person matches the photograph in the system.
The bill addresses what’s been one of the biggest programs with the current system. Beyond employment- based visas, the bill would create an entirely new category of “merit-based” visas. A merit-based visa, created in the fifth year after the bill becomes law, would award points to individuals based on their education, employment, length of residence in the U.S., and other considerations. Individuals with the most points would earn one of the 120,000 visas that will be available per year. The number would increase by 5% annually if demand exceeds supply in any year where unemployment is less than 8.5%.A maximum cap of 250,000 merit-based visas is proposed.
Under this system, the DHS would allocate merit-based immigrant visas beginning Oct. 1, 2014, for employment-based visas that have been pending for 3 years, family based petitions that were filed prior to enactment and have been pending for 5 years, and to long term immigrant workers who have been lawfully present in the country for more than 10 years. It is this category that those who are in the country illegally now would be funneled into after a decade as legalized residents.
Currently, only about 14% of green cards granted are employment based. That percentage could increase to as high as 50% under this proposal. The bill also emphasizes the need to shift immigration resources toward high-skilled immigrants. It creates a start up visa for foreign entrepreneurs who seek to emigrate to the U.S. to launch their own companies.
The bill exempts the following categories from the annual numerical limits on employment-based immigrants: derivative beneficiaries of employment-based immigrants; aliens of extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business or athletics; outstanding professors and researchers; multinational executives and managers; doctoral degree holders in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields; and physicians who have completed the foreign residency requirements or have received a waiver.
The bill also redistributes 40% of the worldwide level of employment-based visas to high skilled workers and those who have earned a master’s degree or higher in STEM fields from an accredited U.S. institution. The bill increases the percentage of employment visas for skilled workers and other professionals to 40%, maintains the percentage of employment visas for certain special immigrants to 10% and maintains visas for those who foster employment creation to 10%.
Married children over 30 years of age and siblings of U.S. citizens would no longer be eligible for a family preference in the visa application process and the bill would eliminate the 55,000 Diversity Visa Program recipients awarded by lottery each year that go largely to immigrants from Africa and Eastern Europe.
Those who were or are selected for diversity immigrant visas for fiscal years 2013 or 2014 would still receive their visas.
The plan calls for a sizable increase in high-skilled visas, fees for employers that hire large numbers of foreign workers, and institutes a ban on those companies applying for additional H-1B visas in the future.
The legislation would increase the current number of H-1B visas from 65,000 to 110,000. The current 20,000 visa exemption for U.S. advanced degree holders would be amended to a 25,000 visa exemption for advance degree graduates in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics from U.S. schools.
Provisions designed to keep high-skilled hiring from hurting U.S. tech workers include “H-1B dependent employers” paying significantly higher wages and fees than normal users of the program and prohibiting companies whose U.S. workforce largely consists of foreign guest workers from obtaining additional H-1B and L visas. In 2014, companies will be banned from bringing in any additional workers if more than 75% of their workers are H-1B or L-1 employees.
New Visa on the Block
The bill creates a new visa for lower-skilled workers in the service sector, construction and agriculture. The program begins April 1, 2015 and would be initially capped at 20,000 and would rise to 75,000 by 2019.
The spouse and minor children of the W visa holder will be allowed to accompany or follow to join and will be given work authorization for the same period of admission as the principle visa holder.
Immigrants would apply at the U.S. embassies and consulates in their home countries and the visa would be valid for 3 years. If visa holders are unemployed for 60 days or more, they would be required to leave the United States. The workers must be paid the prevailing wage and cannot be employed in areas where unemployment is above 8.5%. Employers cannot fire American workers 90 days before or after the hiring of guest workers.
Agriculture Program Revised
A new agricultural guest worker visa program would also be established. A portable, at-will employment based visa (W-3 visa) and a contract based visa (W-2 visa) would replace the current H-2A program.
As many as 337,000 new three-year visas would be available for farm workers. After five years, an annual visa limit based on market conditions would be set.
The bill would allow current undocumented farm workers to obtain expedited legal status. Undocumented farm workers who “have made a substantial prior commitment to agricultural work in the U.S.,” show that they have paid all taxes, have not been convicted of any serious crime, and pay a $400 fine would be eligible to adjust to legal permanent resident status.
Spouses and minor children would receive derivative status.
Hearings have been scheduled before the Senate Judiciary Committee to review the bill and a committee vote is expected in May. The bill would then go on to the full Senate.